Emerald is a gemstone and a variety of the mineral beryl (Be3Al2(SiO3) colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium. Beryl has a hardness of 7.5–8 on the Mohs scale. Most emeralds are highly included, so their toughness (resistance to breakage) is classified as generally poor. Emerald is a cyclosilicate.

Emeralds, like all colored gemstones, are graded using four basic parameters–the four Cs of Connoisseurship: Color, Clarity, Cut and Carat weight. Before the 20th century, jewelers used the term water, as in “a gem of the finest water

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